Supporters and opponents of ousted Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi prepare to stage large rallies in Cairo on the first Friday of Ramadan. (Basheer via Twitter)
Supporters and opponents of ousted Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi prepare to stage large rallies in Cairo on the first Friday of Ramadan. (Basheer via Twitter)

With Egypt still in turmoil after anti-Mohamed Morsi protesters forced the overthrow of their first democratically elected leader, IBTimes UK looks at the key events in the country's troubled two years of reform and counter-reform.

25 Jan, 2011: Protests begin

Anti-government protesters clash with police in downtown Cairo (Reuters)
Anti-government protesters clash with police in downtown Cairo (Reuters)

Egyptians begin nationwide demonstrations against president Hosni Mubarak as the Arab Spring protests grip north Africa and the Middle East.

Protesters flee from tear gas fire during clashes in Cairo January 28, 2011 (Reuters)
Protesters flee from teargas in Cairo clashes (Reuters)

11 Feb, 2011: Mubarak resigns

Egypt

After more than two weeks of protests in which hundreds are killed, Mubarak steps down to hand power to the Egyptian military, which dissolves parliament and suspends the constitution.

Egyptians and supporters celebrate the resignation of Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak outside the country's embassy in London (Reuters)
Egyptians and supporters celebrate the resignation of Hosni Mubarak outside the Egyptian embassy in London (Reuters)

19 March, 2011: Constitutional amendments

Egyptians cast their first votes on constitutional amendments sponsored by the ruling military, which set the timeline for the transition to democracy.

27 Nov, 2011: Protests against military rule

A protester runs after setting fire to a car during clashes with police in front of the Security Administrative building in Alexandria (Reuters)
A protester runs after setting fire to a car during clashes with police outside security police headquarters in Alexandria (Reuters)

A week of clashes around Cairo leaves 42 people dead as protesters rally to try to evict Egypt's ruling generals. It is the worst violence since Mubarak was deposed. 

28 Nov, 2011 - 15 Feb, 2012: Parliamentary elections

Egypt holds its first parliamentary election since Mubarack was ousted, which take place over several weeks. Nearly half the seats are won by the previously banned Muslim Brotherhood, with the ultra-conservative Salafis taking another quarter.

23-24 May, 2012: Presidential campaigns

First round of voting reveals that Mohamed Morsi and Ahmed Shafiq, the last prime minister under Mubarak, will face off against each other.

24 June, 2012: First democratically elected president

Supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood's presidential candidate Mohamed Morsi celebrate in front of his picture at his headquarters in Cairo (Reuters)
Supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood's presidential candidate Mohamed Morsi celebrate in front of his picture at his headquarters in Cairo (Reuters)

Morsi wins with 51.7% of the votes in presidential runoff.

12 Aug, 2012: Morsi takes control

Morsi orders retirement of the top echelon of the Mubarak-era military leadership including long-time defence minister Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi and his chief of staff.

22 Nov, 2012: First demonstrations against Morsi

Protesters chant slogans against Egyptian President Mohamed Mursi during a demonstration at Tahrir square in Cairo (Reuters)
Protesters chant slogans against Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi in Tahrir Square in Cairo (Reuters)

In a surprise move, Morsi decrees greater powers for himself, giving his decisions immunity from judicial review and barring the courts from dissolving the constituent assembly and the upper house of parliament.  The move sparks days of protests.

4 Dec, 2012: Referendum set

More than 100,000 protesters march on the presidential palace, demanding the cancellation of the 15 December constituional referendum set by Morsi. The following day, Islamists attack an anti-Morsi sit-in, resulting in battles on the street in which 10 people die.

Egypt

25 Jan, 2013: Second anniversary of Mubarak protests

Egypt

Police fire teargas at hundreds of thousands of protestors in Tahrir Square celebrating the two-year anniversary of the revolt against dictator Mubarak.

7 May, 2013: Cabinet reshuffle

Morsi reshuffles his Cabinet and brings in nine members, boosting the ranks of Islamists in the upper levels of government.

30 June, 2013: Calls to step down

Eygpt

Eight people are killed in clashes outside the Muslim Brotherhood's Cairo headquarters as millions of people demonstrate calling for Morsi to step down.

1 July, 2013: Military ultimatum

Army soldiers wear gas masks before clashes with members of the Muslim Brotherhood and supporters of Morsi (Reuters)
Soldiers don gas masks before clashes with members of the Muslim Brotherhood and supporters of Morsi (Reuters)

Large-scale protests continue, prompting Egypt's military to impose a 48-hour deadline for both sides to resolve the issue before they take action.

3 July, 2013: Mohammed Morsi ousted as Egyptian president

Egypt

Egypt's military chief announces that the country's first freely elected president has been deposed, to be replaced by head of Egypt's constitutional court, Adli Mansour as interim president.

5 July, 2013: 'Day of Rejection'

At least 30 people are killed as pro and anti-Morsi supporters clash across the country. Muslim Brotherhood deputy head Khairat el-Shater is arrested.

8 July, 2012: Republican Guard massacre

At least 55 people killed and 435 wounded in shootings outside headquarters of the Republican Guard in Cairo, where Morsi's supporters are gathered.

10 July, 2013: Egypt orders Brotherhood arrest

Egypt's general prosecutor orders the arrest of the Muslim Brotherhood's spiritual leader Mohamed Badie and nine other members for allegedly inciting violence outside the Republican Guard headquarters.

Egyptian military jets fly over Tahrir square full of anti-Morsi supporters (Reuters)
Egyptian military jets fly over Tahrir square full of anti-Morsi supporters (Reuters)

This article was updated November 30, -0001 00:00 AM
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