Iraq's US occupiers "wasted billions" on ill-planned construction projects while blithely ignoring the concerns of the civilian population following the invasion of 2003, according to a new report.
Paul Bremer, the chief administrator of the Coalition Provisional Authority, is criticised for ignoring advice and presiding over an "adhocracy" in which there was little planning and decisions were frequently poor.
"The common chorus coming from virtually all Iraqi leaders interviewed for this report complains that consultations by the CPA and its successors were inadequate, causing the construction of projects that Iraq did not need or want," said the report by the US inspector-general for Iraq construction.
"In retrospect, the Iraq reconstruction experience looks like nine one-year programmes rather than a nine-year programme."
Authority figures failed to consult the civilian population, pressing on with development programmes despite deteriorating security, the report said.
"A succession of diverse, largely improvised entities ultimately managed more than $60 billion (£39.73) in US appropriations and billions more in Iraqi funds to execute more than 90,000 contracting actions," it added.
Bremer recently admitted to strategic mistakes during his 14-month administration, but insisted Iraqis were better off now.
At least 31 people were killed on Friday when a bomb exploded in a cafe in Kirkuk in Iraqi Kurdistan, amid a spate of attacks since the start of Ramadan on 8 July.