Migrants and refugees are rushing to enter Hungary before new emergency immigration laws come into force on Tuesday (15 September). The country's right-wing leader has promised to clamp down on illegal border crossings and said that any "rebellious" migrants would be arrested.

More than 190,000 migrants have crossed into Hungary from Serbia so far this year. The number of people making the crossing has increased every day ahead of the new laws. On Thursday (10 September) police captured a record 3,601 migrants on the border; on Saturday they caught more than 5,000. This record was broken again on Sunday. Laszlo Balazs, head of border police, said: "The police caught 5,809 persons. He added that by 08:00 local time on Monday (14 September) police had taken action against 3,280 people. Unicef has warned that millions more refugees could arrive in Europe if Syria's civil war continues to rage.

This IBTimesUK report on the migrants in Hungary is illustrated with powerful pictures by Getty Images photographer Christopher Furlong.

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Migrants walk along a railway track in Serbia towards a break in the fence erected along the Hungarian borderChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Migrants arrive at dawn at the Hungarian borderChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A six-week-old Syrian baby is carried across the border into HungaryChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A woman and a child arrive at the Hungarian border as dawn breaksChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Migrants and refugees, fearful of being fingerprinted and having to stay in their country of entry into the EU, run through tall grass after crossing into HungaryChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A woman runs for cover at dusk on the Hungarian side of the borderChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Migrants and refugees hoping to evade Hungarian authorities, hide in a cornfieldChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Children cook sweetcorn picked from fields next to the railway track inside the Hungarian borderChristopher Furlong/Getty Images

Under the new laws, asylum requests will be processed at the border; those who apply will be transported to camps elsewhere in the country. Those who refuse to cooperate will be kept at the border, and those who break through the razor wire fence along the 175-kilometre border with Serbia will face arrest and a possible three-year jail term. The government has said it will probably send in the army to assist processing migrants at the border and to operate detention facilities in camps.

Gangs of prisoners are working to finish the 3.5-metre barrier stretching 175 kilometres along the Hungarian-Serbian frontier. Until it is completed, migrants are easily able to crawl or climb over a much lower temporary barbed-wire fence. Soldiers have been deployed to this major crossing point. For now they just watch as the refugees pass, but once the laws come into effect there could be a very different picture.

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Hungarian prisoners, believed to be part of a work detail ordered to finish the razor wire border fence, arrive for their day's labourChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Hungarian prisoners, believed to be part of a work detail drafted in to finish the razor wire fence, watch a Muslim woman walk along the borderChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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The sun rises over the nearly completed fence along Hungary's border with SerbiaChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Hungarian soldiers watch migrants walk through the gap in the border fenceChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A man makes his way into Hungary from Serbia through a hole in the fenceChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Two men struggle to pull a woman in a wheelchair along a muddy track along the borderChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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An armoured vehicle is positioned near the fence as Hungarian soldiers begin to muster at the border with Serbia ahead of new laws for migrant entryChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Hungarian soldiers begin to muster at the border with Serbia ahead of the introduction of new immigration lawsChristopher Furlong/Getty Images

A railway line at the Hungarian border is the sole part of the border not covered by the barbed-wire fence. Taking the tracks means a longer but a safer route that does not involve paying hefty fees to smugglers to spirit them across the border in trucks and vans in the dark. Still, it also almost certainly means ending up in the hands of Hungarian authorities.

Those fleeing their homelands in the Middle East have been following these railway tracks through Turkey, Greece, Macedonia and Serbia. These are the same tracks that once carried the legendary Orient Express that used to connect Europe with Turkey and on to the Middle East.

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A woman and two children walk along the railway track that leads through a gap in the border fenceChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A Syrian refugee walks alone through rain to make his way to Hungary from SerbiaChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Migrants and refugees wrap up to keep warm as they make their way through Serbia towards a break in the steel and razor fence erected on the border by the Hungarian governmentChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A shoeless young Syrian girl sits on the railway tracks that lead from Serbia to Hungary as she and her family wait for darkness before making the crossingChristopher Furlong/Getty Images

Refugees stranded at the border have waited days to be registered, while conditions at makeshift frontier camps which were already basic are deteriorating. Upon entering Hungary they are taken to a holding area, a collection of tents pitched on increasingly muddy, rubbish-strewn ground as bad weather takes its toll on the terrain. They then wait to board buses to take them to transit camps in other parts of the country, from where most hope to continue their journey towards western Europe.

A tent city has popped up in the muddy field. Doctors treat hundreds of patients every day, dressing wounds suffered by refugees on their long journey or tending to injuries they sustained in their country of origin. Other tents offer food, water, tea and coffee. Many of the volunteers are locals, rallying to support the refugees and to send a more welcoming message than their government.

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A man ponders the next stage of the journey as migrants and refugees are transported by buses to a holding area in Roszke, HungaryChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A man looks out from a bus taking migrants and refugees to a holding area in RoszkeChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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People huddle around a campfire on a cold morning at the holding area in RoszkeChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Men fight over a blanket in the holding area just inside the Hungarian borderChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A young boy wraps up on a cold morning in the holding area in RoszkeChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A young girl stands outside a Red Cross tent in the holding area in RoszkeChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A woman finds a new pair of boots amongst the debris left on the ground after migrants were moved on from a holding area in RoszkeChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Migrants and refugees queue for buses to take them to a migrant camp in RoszkeChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Migrants are illuminated by floodlighting as they queue to get on buses in Roszke Christopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Hungarian police officers wearing face masks stop migrants and refugees from boarding a bus that is fullChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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Migrants and refugees jostle to board a bus at the Serbian-Hungarian borderChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A Hungarian policeman instructs migrants and refugees to move away as the bus they are clamouring to get on is fullChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A woman pleads with Hungarian police officers to allow her relatives on a full bus at the border with SerbiaChristopher Furlong/Getty Images

The Associated Press (AP) reported that the refugees and migrants say the worst experiences of their journey have all come in Hungary, where farmers hiss at them in disapproval and billboards warn the newcomers to respect the country's laws and culture – in Hungarian. Hungarian police have launched an investigation after a video posted online showed a crowd of people clamouring for food in a hangar at a reception centre as police in surgical masks threw food at them. The description of the footage said it was filmed at the camp in Roszke.

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Laundry is hung out to dry on the permiter fence of the migrant holding camp in Roszke, HungaryChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
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A young boy looks through the perimeter fence of the migrant holding camp in RoszkeChristopher Furlong/Getty Images
EU migrant crisis: Hungary refugee camp like 'cattle in pens', video revealsIBTimes UK

A recent opinion poll sponsored by the Budapest think tank Republikon found that just 19% believe Hungary has a duty to take in refugees, while 66% deem them a threat and should not be let in. The findings reflect a country where ethnic minorities barely exist outside Budapest and right-wing beliefs dominate in small towns that strongly support the ultranationalist Jobbik party. Described by many (but not themselves) as neo-Nazi, Jobbik is Hungary's third largest party in the National Assembly. It regularly attacks Orban's Fidesz party for being too soft on immigrants and minorities, including gypsies, gays, and Jews.

Jobbik activists sometimes go to the Serbian border and shout abuse in the face of startled asylum seekers. Last week, a camerawoman for a Jobbik-linked web TV channel took the hostility a step further. Journalists filming scuffles between police and migrants captured Petra Laszlo on video as she kicked a young man and a teenage girl in the knees and tripped a running man carrying a young boy. Her station fired her after the video appeared on social media.

Hungarian video journalist caught tripping and kicking refugees on camera firedIBTimes UK

Hungary's treatment of refugees and migrants was likened to Nazi deportations during the Holocaust by Austria's chancellor. In an interview with Der Spiegel, Chancellor of Austria Werner Faymann said: "Sticking refugees in trains and sending them somewhere completely different to where they think they're going reminds us of the darkest chapter of our continent's history." He was referring to an incident on 3 September when migrants boarded a train in Budapest in the belief that they were heading to the border with Austria, but were taken just 35km west of the capital to the town of Bicske, where Hungary has a camp for asylum seekers. Hungary dismissed Faymann's comments as "utterly unworthy of a 21st century European leader" and summoned Austria's ambassador.

An analyst at the Centre for Fair Political Analysis told AP that Hungary was no more racist or xenophobic than other parts of Eastern Europe; it just has little experience with refugees. "It's a gut response to fear the unknown," Julia Lakatos said. "My personal experience is that people are really frustrated, there have been hard times in Hungary, and they are searching for a scapegoat. But anyone who came into contact with the refugees, that experience changed their minds. Personal experience overrides fears."