Nato is strengthening its defence of eastern Europe's border with Russia, deploying German troops to Lithuania, plus a US-led deployment in Poland, British-led troops in Estonia and Canadian-led troops in Latvia. They will add to smaller rotating contingents of US troops.

Operation Atlantic Resolve
A US soldier prepares for unload an M1 Abrams tank which will be deployed in Latvia for Nato's Operation Atlantic Resolve in Garkalne, Latvia, on 8 February 2017Ints Kalnins/Reuters
Operation Atlantic Resolve
Workers prepare to unload US M1 Abrams tanks that will be deployed in Latvia for Nato's Operation Atlantic Resolve in Garkalne, Latvia, on 8 February 2017Ints Kalnins/Reuters
Operation Atlantic Resolve
A USA M1 Abrams tank which will be deployed in Latvia for Nato's Operation Atlantic Resolve is unloaded in Garkalne, Latvia, on 8 February 2017Ints Kalnins/Reuters

The soldiers, along with tanks and heavy equipment, are part of a planned Nato operation to beef up its Eastern European allies, vexing the Kremlin, which said the troops' presence is a threat to Russia. More than 1,000 Nato soldiers being stationed in Lithuania sends a clear signal that the alliance stands "strong and united" in the Baltics in the face of Russian aggression, the Lithuanian president said.

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German soldiers attend a ceremony to welcome the German battalion being deployed to Lithuania as part of Nato deterrence measures against Russia in Rukla, Lithuania, on 7 February 2017Ints Kalnins/Reuters
Operation Atlantic Resolve
Lithuania's President Dalia Grybauskaite (L) and German Defence Minister Ursula von der Leyen attend a ceremony to welcome the German battalion being deployed to Lithuania as part of Nato deterrence measures against Russia in Rukla, Lithuania, on 7 February 2017Ints Kalnins/Reuters
Operation Atlantic Resolve
Netherlands' soldiers attend a ceremony to welcome the German battalion being deployed to Lithuania as part of Nato deterrence measures against Russia in Rukla, Lithuania, on 7 February 2017Ints Kalnins/Reuters

US soldiers have begun relocating throughout the region to train with European allies in Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania. The US deployment to Nato's eastern flank includes more than 80 main battle tanks and hundreds of armoured vehicles. Brigade headquarters, battalion of support, regiment of artillery, cavalry squadrons will be stationed in Poland. This is the largest US military reinforcement of Europe in decades with around 2,700 troops, out of 3,500 planned, arriving as part of operation Atlantic Resolve.

Operation Atlantic Resolve
Latvian army officer gives instructions to U.S. soldiers at the winter survival course during joint military exercise "Winter" in Adazi, Latvia on 26 January 2017Ints Kalnins/Reuters
Operation Atlantic Resolve
US army soldiers attend winter survival course during joint military exercise "Winter" in Adazi, Latvia on 26 January 2017Ints Kalnins/Reuters

Poland and the Baltic former Soviet Republics requested US and Nato troops after Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Crimea Peninsula in 2014, fearing further military operations in the region by President Vladimir Putin.

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Polish and US soldiers attend the inauguration ceremony of bilateral military training between US and Polish troops in Zagan, Poland, on 30 January 2017Kacper Pempel/Reuters
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Polish Defense Minister Antoni Macierewicz (C) welcomes the US Armys 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division for the inauguration of a bilateral military training of US and Polish Forces in support of the Atlantic Resolve operation in Zagan, Poland, on 30 January 2017Natalia Dobryszycka/AFP
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US and Polish army soldiers gather near their tanks after live firing exercise in Zagan, Poland, on 30 January 2017Kacper Pempel/Reuters
Operation Atlantic Resolve
American soldiers during a welcome ceremony at the Polish-German border in Olszyna, Poland, on 12 January 2017Natalia Dobryszycka/AFP
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US Army M1 Abrams and other military vehicles stand in line prior being loaded onto trains after being unloaded from ships two days before in Bremerhaven, Germany, on 8 January 2017Alexander Koerner/Getty Images
Operation Atlantic Resolve
US soldiers take part in a live shooting exercise during US operation "Atlantic Resolve" in Adazi, Latvia, on 11 November 2016Ints Kalnins/Reuters
Operation Atlantic Resolve
US soldiers take part in a live shooting exercise during US operation "Atlantic Resolve" in Adazi, Latvia, on 11 November 2016Ints Kalnins/Reuters