On 10 June 2016, Prince Philip turns 95, making him both the longest-serving spouse of a reigning British monarch and the oldest male British royal of all time.
Philippos Schleswig-Holstein Sonderburg-Glucksburg was born on the Greek island of Corfu on 10 June 1921, the only son of Prince Andrew of Greece. His parents went into exile when he was 18 months old. Philip's early life was spent on the move around Europe until he was sent to Gordonstoun school in Scotland. Under the guidance of his uncle, Lord Louis Mountbatten, Philip renounced his Greek titles and was formally naturalised as a British subject.
In 1939 he joined Britain's Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. It was here that he first met Princess Elizabeth when, at the age of 13, she visited with her parents. During the Second World War Philip took part in the Allied landings in Sicily and was in Tokyo Bay when the Japanese surrendered in 1945.
The engagement of Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten to Princess Elizabeth was announced in July 1947. They were married in Westminster Abbey on 20 November 1947. July 1947: Princess Elizabeth poses with Prince Philip in the state apartments at Buckingham Palace upon their engagement. Getty 9 July 1947: Princess Elizabeth, Philip Mountbatten, Queen Elizabeth (the future Queen Mother), King George VI and Princess Margaret pose in Buckingham Palace on the day the engagement of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten was officially announced AFP 1 October 1947: Prince Philip poses for an official portrait in the White Drawing Room at Buckingham Palace Getty Images 20 November 1947: A portrait of Princess Elizabeth and Prince Philip on their wedding day Topical Press Agency/Getty Images 17 October 1951: The Duke of Edinburgh dances with his wife, Princess Elizabeth, at a square dance held in their honour in Ottawa, by Governor General Viscount Alexander during their Canadian tour. Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images 2 June 1953: Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip pose together after her coronation AFP 2 June 1953: Queen Elizabeth II, accompanied by Prince Philip, waves to the crowd from the balcony at Buckingham Palace after being crowned at Westminster Abbey. Her coronation was the first worldwide televised event AFP Princess Elizabeth gave birth to their first child, Charles, in November 1948. The royal couple had three more children: Princess Anne born in 1950, Prince Andrew in 1960 and Prince Edward in 1964. Philip devoted himself to public duties when Elizabeth became queen following the death of her father.
Philip has been criticised for his views on subjects as varied as nuclear power, individual freedom and nature conservation. He has been called a hypocrite for heading the conservation group the World Wide Fund for Nature while continuing to indulge in blood sports such as pheasant shooting.
His tactless gaffes are legendary. During a state visit to China he told British students: "If you stay here much longer, you'll be slitty-eyed." The remarks were symbolic of his gruff and unguarded manner, which contrasted sharply with the sweetly smiling image of the Queen.
Credited with carrying out more public engagements than any other royal except his daughter, Princess Anne, Prince Philip continued throughout his eighties to support a wide range of charities and accompany the Queen on her royal duties.
However, he has recently announced he will be winding down his activities and stepping back from his official duties. The royal couple hold their two children, Charles and Anne, at Balmoral AFP 26 January 1961: The Queen and Prince Philip pose with the Maharaja and Maharani of Jaipur after a tiger shoot in Jaipur, India AFP 1965: The Queen and Prince Philip, with their children (left to right) Edward, Anne, Charles and Andrew, celebrate the Queen's 39th birthday at Windsor Keystone/Getty Images April 1973: Prince Philip looks on as the Queen uses a camera at the Badminton Horse Trials Tim Graham/Getty Image 1979: The Queen and Prince Philip go on safari during their state visit to Zambia Serge Lemoine/Getty 16 May 1982: The Queen and Prince Philip chat together at the Royal Windsor Horse Show Getty Images 4 August 1982: Princess Diana holds her son Prince William, while Prince Charles, Prince Philip, the Queen and the Queen Mother look on, at Buckingham Palace after William's christening ceremony Fox Photos/Getty Images 18 September 1982: Prince Andrew talks to his mother as his father looks on, aboard the air carrier HMS Invincible, upon his return from the Falklands war, where he served as a helicopter pilot AFP] October 1982: The Queen and Prince Philip visit the Solomon Islands during a tour of the South Pacific Anwar Hussein/Getty Images 13 June 1996: The Queen and Prince Philip attend the Beating the Retreat ceremony on Horseguards Parade in honour of his 75th birthday Reuters 5 September 1997: The Duke of Edinburgh and the Queen view the huge pile of flowers and tributes left outside Kensington Palace in memory of Diana, Princess of Wales AFP 6 September 1997: The Duke of Edinburgh, Prince William, Earl Spencer, Prince Harry and Prince Charles walk outside Westminster Abbey during the funeral service for Diana, Princess of Wales AFP 31 December 1999: The Duke of Edinburgh and the Queen toast the new millennium during celebrations at the Millennium Dome in London AFP 16 June 2001: Queen Elizabeth II stands on the Buckingham Palace balcony with the Queen Mother, Prince Philip and Prince Charles for the Trooping the Colour ceremony Reuters 5 April 2002: Prince Andrew, Prince Charles, Prince Philip, Princess Anne and Prince Edward walk behind the coffin of the Queen Mother during a ceremonial procession in London Pool 4 June 2002: The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh travel back to Buckingham Palace after the Golden Jubilee Service of Thanksgiving held at St Paul's Cathedral. Thousands of people gathered in central London for the festivities on the final day of the celebratory weekend marking the Queen's 50th year on the throne Murray Sanders/Pool 4 December 2002: The Duke of Edinburgh stands next to a cartoon depicting the Queen as the landlady of the Old Vic from EastEnders, drawn by Trogg for the Golden Jubilee AFP 16 May 2003: The Duke of Edinburgh competes in the dressage event of the International Grand Prix in the Royal Windsor Horse Show Getty Images 14 June 2003: The Queen smiles at the Duke of Edinburgh as they arrive for the annual Trooping the Colour Parade held to mark the the Queen's birthday in London Reuters 23 November 2004: The Queen and Prince Philip arrive for the state opening of Parliament in London Ian Waldie/Getty Images 9 April 2005: The Prince of Wales and his new bride Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, pose with Prince Harry, Prince William, Tom and Laura Parker Bowles, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Queen and Camilla's father Major Bruce Shand, in the White Drawing Room at Windsor Castle after their wedding ceremony AFP 13 May 2005: The Duke of Edinburgh rides a mini motorbike during the Royal Windsor Horse Show at Home Park Getty 22 October 2006: The Duke of Edinburgh, in his role as the regiment's Colonel in Chief, visits The Queen's Royal Hussars in Basra, Iraq MoD An official photo released to mark their diamond wedding anniversary on 19 November 2007 shows the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh taking a walk together at Broadlands AFP 26 March 2008: The Queen, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, his wife Carla Sarkozy-Bruni and the Duke of Edinburgh review a guard of review during a welcome ceremony at Windsor Castle AFP 1 April 2009: US President Barack Obama and his wife Michelle meet with the Queen and Prince Philip at Buckingham Palace AFP 30 June 2010: The Duke of Edinburgh visits the Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa Getty Images 18 November 2010: The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh wear 3D glasses to watch a display during a visit to the University of Sheffield Getty 29 April 2011: Prince William and Kate Middleton pose in the Throne Room at Buckingham Palace with members of their families after their wedding. Front row: Grace van Cutsem, Eliza Lopes, Prince Philip, the Queen, Margarita Armstrong-Jones, Louise Windsor, William Lowther-Pinkerton. Back Row: Tom Pettifer, Camilla, Prince Charles, Prince Harry, Michael Middleton, Carole Middleton, James Middleton and Philippa Middleton AFP 18 May 2011: Prince Philip eyes up a pint of stout at the Guinness Storehouse in Dublin during the first visit to Ireland by a British monarch since 1911 Pool 4 June 2011: The Duke of Edinburgh and the Countess of Wessex wait for the start of the Derby at Epsom Downs racecourse Getty 10 June 2011: Prince Philip studies a birthday present of ear defenders, given to him during a reception for the the Action on Hearing Loss charity, at Buckingham Palace Pool 3 September 2011: The Queen and Prince Philip attend the Braemar Gathering and Highland Games in Scotland Getty 27 December 2011: Prince Philip leaves Papworth Hospital in Cambridgeshire, four days after being rushed in for heart surgery and mising the royal family's Christmas celebrations AFP 20 March 2012: The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh sit in Westminster Hall after addressing both Houses of Parliament Getty Images 5 April 2012: Prince Philip looks at a mannequin on display as part of an exhibition of medieval costumes designed by York College students, during a visit to the Yorkshire Museum Pool 3 June 2012: The Queen and Prince Philip travel onboard the Spirit of Chartwell during the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant on the River Thames AFP 16 June 2012: Prince Philip speaks with Prince William and Kate Middleton on the balcony of Buckingham Palace following the Trooping the Colour ceremony Reuters 30 April 2013: The Queen smiles at Prince Philip during a ceremonial welcome for President of the United Arab Emirates, His Highness Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan in Windsor Reuters 8 May 2013: The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh leave after the State Opening of Parliament at the Palace of Westminster Reuters 11 April 2014: The Queen and Prince Philip react as they bid farewell to Irish President Michael D Higgins and his wife Sabina at Windsor Castle AFP 15 May 2014: The Duke of Edinburgh rides through the grounds of Windsor Castle during the Royal Windsor Horse Show 6 June 2014: Prime Minister David Cameron looks on as Prince Philip speaks to veteran Leonard Broomfield following a D-Day commemoration ceremony at the cathedral in Bayeux AFP 13 March 2015: The Queen and Prince Philip hold hands as they leave after the Afghanistan service of commemoration at St Paul's Cathedral in London Reuters 31 October 2015: Prince Harry and Prince Phillip enjoy the atmosphere during the 2015 Rugby World Cup Final match between New Zealand and Australia at Twickenham Stadium Getty Images 5 November 2015: The Duke of Edinburgh shakes hands and shares a joke with a wheelchair-bound veteran as he attends a service in the Field of Remembrance at Westminster Abbey Getty Images 15 May 2016: Prince Philip covers his ears during a gun salute on the final night of the Queen's 90th Birthday Celebrations at Windsor Getty Images 7 June 2016: Prince Philip attends the opening of the Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre in Wales Reuters
The Queen turned 90 on 21 April, but she celebrates her official birthday on the weekend of 11 and 12 June. Since becoming queen, she has seen 12 prime ministers, starting with Winston Churchill, and there have been 12 US presidents, from Harry S Truman to Barack Obama (so far). Her official birthday day will be marked with
a service of thanksgiving at St Paul's Cathedral on 10 June, the Trooping The Colour parade on 11 June and a giant street party on the Mall in front of Buckingham Palace for representatives of all the charities the Queen supports on 12 June.