The King of Clay, who began his campaign with a straightforward victory over Benoit Paire earlier this week, brushed aside world number 46 Robin Haase 6-1 6-4 6-3 in under two hours. He will now face Nikoloz Basilashvili of Georgia, who squeezed past Viktor Troicki by winning three successive tiebreaks to advance through to the third round of a Grand Slam for only the second time in his career.
Second seed Novak Djokovic is also safely through after dispatching of Joao Sousa 6-1 6-4 6-3 in his second match under the tutelage of new coach Andre Agassi. Next up is Argentinian right-hander Diego Schwartzman, who eliminated Stefano Napolitano in straight sets.
The shock of the day saw two-time semi-finalist Jo- Wilfried Tsonga stunned by 91-ranked Renzo Olivo. The home favourite trailed 7-5 6-4 6-7 5-4 overnight and was immediately broken to seal his earliest defeat at Roland Garros for 12 years.
Dominic Thiem had little trouble dispatching of Simone Bolelli, while Grigor Dimitrov beat Tommy Robredo. David Goffin eliminated Sergiy Stakhovsky in four sets and Milos Raonic overturned an early deficit to defeat Rogerio Dutra Silva. Andy Murray and Kyle Edmund remain the only British singles players left in the competition after Aljaz Bedene fell to Jiri Vesely.
There were tears after Steve Johnson, whose father died earlier this month, came out on top in an eventful clash with a frustrated Borna Coric. Albert Ramos-Vinolas and Guillermo Garcia-Lopez also progressed, although Ivo Karlovic lost to Horacio Zeballos.
In the women's draw, defending champion Garbine Muguruza endured a slow start and dropped the first set in her meeting with Anett Kontaveit before recovering to win 6-7 6-4 6-2. She will play Yulia Putintseva in round three.
Venus Williams, with pregnant sister Serena watching from the stands on Philippe-Chatrier Court, easily vanquished Kurumi Nara and Caroline Wozniacki inflicted an embarrassing double bagel on Francoise Abanda. Petra Kvitova was ousted by Bethanie Mattek-Sands after beating Julia Boserup earlier this week in her first competitive match since suffering a career-threatening hand injury during a knife attack at her home in December.
There were also victories for Kristina Mladenovic, Kiki Bertens, Samantha Stosur, Elise Mertens, Timea Bacsinszky, Zhang Shuai, Shelby Rogers and Jelena Ostapenko. Ekaterina Makarova, conqueror of world number one Angelique Kerber, was dumped out in straight sets by Lesia Tsurenko.
Sixth seed Dominika Cibulkova followed Kerber and Johanna Konta in exiting after being stunned 6-4 6-3 by Tunisian Ons Jabeur.