With increasingly sophisticated monitoring and surveillance, more and more volcanic eruptions are being captured on film. 2015 has seen some impressive ones, from Mexico to Italy and Indonesia. IBTimes UK looks at some of the biggest and most spectacular eruptions of the year.
Calbuco volcano in Chile
Chile's Calbuco volcano erupted for the first time since 1972 in April, sending ash and smoke 10km into the sky. The dramatic explosion was captured on camera, showing a mushroom-shaped column blowing into the sky and lightning bolts shooting through it. At the time, authorities declared a state of emergency and around 1,500 people had to be evacuated.
Mexico's Popocatepetl volcano
Mexico's Popocatepetl volcano erupted for several days in October. The volcano has erupted many times over the last decade, but has become increasingly active since 2012, with eruptions recorded every year since. The last eruption saw a column of ash and smoke being ejected 2,500m into the air.
Colima volcano in Mexico
The Colima volcano – or Volcano of Fire (Volcan del Fuego) – in Mexico erupted in January spewing ash 1,000m into the air. It was one of a string of eruptions from the most active volcano in the Colima Volcanic Complex and it was captured by webcams stationed at the site. It began erupting again in July and evacuation orders have had to be issued several times. On one occasion, a plume of smoke was sent 3,000m into the air.
Mount Etna in Italy
Italy's Mount Etna erupted in December, with bright red lava being ejected into the night sky. Etna is the largest and most active volcano in Europe, with records of eruptions dating back over 2,000 years. The latest eruption was the first in two years and saw a 'dirty thunderstorm', where lightning accompanies the eruption. It is thought this is caused by the ash particles rubbing together to create electric charges over the volcano.
Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica
Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica erupted in May, sending a column of gas and ash almost 2,000m into the air. The explosion lasted half an hour and the ash reached parts of the capital San Jose, located 30 miles away. Costa Rica's international airport was shut down for a short time. This eruption followed another from Turrialba two months earlier, which was the most powerful eruption in 20 years.
Hawaii's Kilauea volcano
Kilauea volcano is the youngest and most active Hawaiian shield volcano. It is found on Big Island and has had near continuous eruptions since 1960. In August, a large breakout of lava came from Kilauea, flowing into the surrounding forest. Footage showed the thick lava flowing from the east of the volcano and it moved around half a mile in just 24 hours.
Nicaragua's Momotombo volcano
At the start of December, Momotobo volcano in Nicaragua erupted for the first time in 110 years, spewing gas, ash and lava up to 8km into the air. The volcano, which has been dormant since 1905, began rumbling back to life and experts said explosions were taking place every four seconds. Nearby communities saw ash and dust rain down, but most of the lava flow moved down the mountain's north face and no unnecessary precautions were taken.