President Rodrigo Duterte took office on 30 June 2016, vowing to halt the drug abuse and lawlessness he saw as "symptoms of virulent social disease". Over the past year, his brutal war on drugs has resulted in thousands of deaths and mass imprisonments, yet the street price of crystal methamphetamine in Manila has fallen and surveys show Filipinos are as anxious as ever about crime.
The drug war's exact death toll is hotly disputed, with critics saying the toll is far above the 5,000 that police have identified as either drug-related killings, or suspects shot dead during police operations.
Most victims are small-time users and dealers, while the masterminds behind the lucrative drug trade are largely unknown and at large, say critics of Duterte's ruthless methods.
If Duterte's strategy was working, then the laws of economics suggest the price of crystal meth, the highly addictive drug also known as 'shabu', should be rising as it becomes harder to find. But the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency's own data suggests the price of shabu in Manila has fallen over the past year.
Thanks to his campaign, government officials say, crime has dropped, thousands of drug dealers are behind bars, a million users have registered for treatment, and future generations of Filipinos are being protected from the scourge of drugs.
Critics, however, including human rights activists, lawyers and the country's influential Catholic church, dispute the authorities' claims of success. They say police have summarily executed drug suspects with impunity, terrorising poorer communities and exacerbating the very lawlessness they were meant to tackle.
"This president behaves as if he is above the law – that he is the law," wrote Amado Picardal, an outspoken Filipino priest, in a recent article for a Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines publication. "He has ignored the rule of law and human rights."
IBTimes UK looks back at a year of Philippines' President Rodrigo Duterte's war on drugs. (Warning: Many of the images in this gallery are very graphic.)
30 June 2016: Incoming President Rodrigo Duterte and outgoing President Benigno Aquino salute before Aquino leaves the Malacanang Palace in Manila, Philippines Erik De Castro/Reuters 1 July 2016: A man wearing a Duterte election campaign wristband is fingerprinted after surrendering to police and local government officials in San Juan city, metro Manila Czar Dancel/Reuters 3 July 2016: Funeral workers carry the body of one of five suspected drug dealers killed in a police operation in Quiapo city, metro Manila Romeo Ranoco/Reuters 8 July 2016: Police officers investigate the dead body of an alleged drug dealer, his face covered with packaging tape, and a placard reading 'I'm a pusher' on a street in Manila Noel Celis/AFP 18 July 2016: More than 1,000 drug users and dealers promise they will never be involved in drugs again, after they surrendered to local officials in Tanauan Batangas, south of Manila Erik De Castro/Reuters 19 July 2016: Inmates sleep on an open basketball court inside the Quezon City jail in Manila. There are 3,800 inmates at the jail, which was built to house 800, and they engage in a relentless contest for space. Men take turns to sleep on the cracked cement floor of an open-air basketball court, staircases, underneath beds and on hammocks made out of old blankets Noel Celis/AFP 23 July 2016: A woman cradles the body of her husband who was killed on a street – by a vigilante group, according to police – in Pasay city, Metro Manila. The found near the body reads: 'I am a drug pusher' Czar Dancel/Reuters
10 August 2016: Two drug suspects lie dead after an alleged shootout with police in Manila Dondi Tawatao/Getty Images 18 August 2016: Residents watch as a crime scene which resulted in the death of an alleged drug dealer is cordoned off by police in a shanty community in Manila Dondi Tawatao/Getty Images 18 August 2016: A gun is seen under the hand of a man who police said was killed during a drug bust operation in Manila Ezra Acayan/Reuters 18 August 2016: Residents use a rail trolley to transport the bodies of two men who police said were killed after they fought back during a drugs operation in Manila Ezra Acayan/Reuters 20 August 2016: Suspected drug users and small time dealers are held in a police gymnasium in Manila during a night time mass arrest Dondi Tawatao/Getty Images 24 August 2016: Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte makes a fist bump with soldiers during a visit to Capinpin military camp in Tanay, Rizal Erik De Castro/Reuters 28 August 2016: Police officers work at the scene where two suspects were shot dead following an encounter and shootout at a checkpoint along a highway in Manila Noel Celis/AFP
21 September 2016: Funeral workers remove masking tape wrapped around the head and the wrists of the body of a man who police said was a victim of drug-related vigilante execution in Manila Ezra Acayan/Reuters 24 September 2016: Drug users are hosed down as part of their rehabilitation programme organised by the government of San Fernando, La Union, in northern Philippines Erik De Castro/Reuters 7 October 2016: A man holds a baby as police search a slum in Manila during a drug raid Damir Sagolj/Reuters 9 October 2016: Police inspect the bodies of two men who were reportedly killed after a drug buy-bust operation in Quezon city, Metro Manila Ezra Acayan/Reuters 11 October 2016: Heavy rain pours down on the body of a man killed by unidentified gunmen riding motorcycles in a narrow alley in Manila Damir Sagolj/Reuters 12 October 2016: A man wearing a Duterte election campaign wristband is handcuffed to a police vehicle after police said he was caught with sachets of "Shabu" (Metamphetamine Chloride) during a drug raid in Quezon City, Metro Manila Erik De Castro/Reuters 14 October 2016: The covered body of a man killed by unknown gunmen lies on a street in Caloocan City, Metro Manila Damir Sagolj/Reuters 14 October 2016: Janeth Mejos reacts as the body of her father, Paquito Mejos, is taken out of their home shortly after he was killed in a police operation in Manila Damir Sagolj/Reuters 15 October 2016: Diane Agregado, the daughter of Reynaldo Agregado who was killed in a police anti-drugs operation, changes her son's nappy next to her father's coffin in Manila Damir Sagolj/Reuters 26 October 2016: A 17-year-old girl lies dead next to her doll after she and her friend were killed by unknown motorcycle-riding gunmen, in an alley in Manila. According to the police, a sign reading 'You are a (drug) pusher, you are an animal' was found on the other body Damir Sagolj/Reuters
9 November 2016: A member of the Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team stands guard as residents look on during an anti-drug operation at an informal settlers' area in Manila Ted Aljibe/AFP 9 November 2016: A girl looks out from the window near a member of Philippines National Police SWAT team during an anti-drug operation in Pasig, Metro Manila Erik De Castro/Reuters 14 November 2016: A man whom police said was a victim of a drug-related vigilante execution, is seen with his head and wrist wrapped in masking tape, on a street in Pasay city, metro Manila Romeo Ranoco/Reuters 15 November 2016: A pool of blood was left on an avenue following a shooting by an unknown assailant of a man in Pasay city Jes Aznar/Getty Images 12 December 2016: Relatives walk behind a hearse during the funeral of Alex Hongco who was shot by police along with three other men during an alleged drug session Dondi Tawatao/Getty Images 15 December 2016: An inmate look outside from an overcrowded jail cell in Manila Dondi Tawatao/Getty Images 29 December 2016: Children look inside a room where seven people were shot dead by suspected vigilantes at a house storing illegal narcotics in Caloocan city Erik De Castro/Reuters 5 January 2017: Police investigate a crime scene where a woman was shot dead by unidentified gunmen in Manila Noel Celis/AFP 24 January 2017: People who live in a cemetery in Manila watch as a body is buried Dondi Tawatao/Getty Images 18 May 2017: Police officers investigate an alleged drug dealer killed by an unidentified gunman in Manila Noel Celis/AFP 19 June 2017: Police investigators examine the crime scene of a drug-related shooting by unidentified masked men at Navotas city in metro Manila Dondi Tawatao/Reuters
In the first 11 months of Duterte's rule, police say 3,155 suspects were shot dead in anti-drug operations. Critics maintain that many of them were summarily executed. Police say they have investigated a further 2,000 drug-related killings, and have yet to identify a motive in at least another 7,000 murders and homicides. Human rights monitors believe many of these victims were killed by undercover police or their paid vigilantes, a charge the police deny.