An influential survey has suggested the impact of Brexit on North America and the Middle East is likely to be negligible, but key European economies will feel short-term negative effects at the very least.
Germany's Ifo Institute said on Monday (8 August) that its survey of 762 economic experts from 112 countries found that short-term negative effects of the UK's 23 June vote to leave the European Union would be felt in the EU15 group the hardest.
The grouping includes Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the UK.
"In the medium-term [in three to five years] it is expected to put the brakes on the economy in all EU member states," the Ifo added in a statement.
It also noted that Commonwealth countries could also face marginally negative economic effects in both the short and medium term, alongside the UK.
The Ifo institute poll was conducted between 1 and 27 July, 2016.