Nato has hit back at Moscow after Russia listed the alliance as a top security threat.
Hours after Russian President Vladimir Putin released a military doctrine identifying Nato as a threat, a spokesperson for the organisation, Oana Lungescu, said: "Any steps taken by Nato to ensure the security of its members are clearly defensive in nature, proportionate and in compliance with international law."
She added on Twitter: "In fact, it is Russia's actions, including currently in Ukraine, which are breaking international law and undermining European security....[Nato would] continue to seek a constructive relationship with Russia, but that is only possible with a Russia that abides by international law and principles - including the right of nations to choose their future freely."
Amid the ongoing standoff between Russian and Western powers, Kremlin, on its website, released a revised a 29-page military doctrine listing 14 security risks to the country beginning with Nato forces.
Russia perceives threat from "the creation and deployment of global strategic antiballistic missile systems that undermine global stability".
The country is also opposed to increasing nuclear missile capabilities of the West, "prompt strike" concept, as well as space and strategic conventional precision weapons.
The document asserts that Russia will protect its interests in the Arctic region.
The doctrine says the country faces threats of "actions aimed at violent change of the Russian constitutional order, destabilisation of the political and social environment, disorganisation of the functioning of governmental bodies, crucial civilian and military facilities and informational infrastructure of Russia".