The organisation of Islamic Cooperation, or OIC, is likely to suspend Syria's membership as the violent civil war rages across the country between President Bashar al-Assad's regime and rebel forces.
Meeting at a conference in Mecca, if a two thirds majority is reached by the 57-member body it will mount further pressure on President Assad to bring the conflict with the rebels to a close.
One of the OIC nations against Syria's expulsion is Iran, one of the country's main allies. The unrest in the country can be seen as part of a wider sectarian conflicts across the Middle East, as Syria's mainly Sunni Muslim rebels are backed by Sunni-ruled Arab states such as Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Turkey, while Shi'ite Iran supports Assad.
However, Saudi King Abdullah asked Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, seen here making a peace sign, to sit beside him during the OIC summit - suggesting both parties are attempting to reconcile their differences.
The US will also be involved in the talks, as they have sent an envoy, Rashad Hussain, to observe the summit and engage with top officials over how to resolve the crisis in Syria. The US has maintained that Iran has been helping Syria in training its forces.
Written and Presented by Alfred Joyner