Donald Trump's tweets tell a lot about his personality. They suggest he is creative and competitive, but he also has neurotic tendencies, scientists have said.
In the 1930s, economist Joseph Schumpeter described the personality that he viewed as characteristic of successful entrepreneurs - individuals who are change-oriented and rule-breakers with high levels of creativity and competitiveness.
Given the increasing role of entrepreneurs in the socio-economic sphere, researchers are wondering whether having these personality traits can encourage them to take on a more proactive political role.
In a study now published in the journal Small Business Economics, scientists have studied the case of Donald Trump - arguably the most striking example of an entrepreneur turned politician - to see how his personality might have allowed for this transition.
Since joining Twitter in 2009, Trump has tweeted more than 35,000 times - an average of 12 times a day. He now counts 30 million followers, which makes him the second most followed politician, just after Barack Obama.
Personality in tweets
The study's authors analysed how aspects of Trump's personality are revealed in the language he used in 3,200 tweets issued by October 2016, before he was elected president.
They compared his online personality to the online personality of other influential entrepreneurs and business managers, who do not engage in political leadership, using a language-based, computerised method of analysing Twitter statements.
The researchers found that Trump has a distinct personality type compared to the other entrepreneurs analysed, one that is very similar to the personality described by Schumpeter.
According to the scientists, his tweets indeed suggest a very creative, change-orientated, competitive and rule-breaking individual. But they also suggest that he has neurotic tendencies, and they reveal experiences that underlie low levels of wellbeing.
"These traits are rather untypical for entrepreneurs since working as an entrepreneur may not only require emotional stability and optimism but also be able to increase happiness due to procedural utility," explained study author Martin Obschonka, from Queensland University of Technology in Australia.
However, the researchers point out that neuroticism may not be all bad, as it can also stimulate competitiveness and may explain how he transitioned from the business world to the world of politics.
"Maybe this high neuroticism is a major motivator to succeed in Trump's entrepreneurial projects in his business life, but also in his role as political leader," said Christian Fisch from Trier University in Germany, the other author of the study.
"If social distinction is a core principle of the entrepreneurial personality, then we clearly see this principle reflected in his unusual personality profile. Many experts agree that really successful entrepreneurs not only dare to be different - they are different."