The fight erupted in parliament as members were debating a bill that would allow for the use of Russian an official language in some civic institutions in the Russian-speaking regions of Ukraine, including in courts, schools and hospitals.
The clashes were between members of the pro-Western opposition who want the country's government to break away from Russia's influence and lawmakers from President Viktor Yanukovytch's party, who supported the bill.
Opposition members said the bill would only further divide the country.
As the confrontation turned violent at least one opposition lawmaker Mykola Petruk suffered an apparent blow to the head. He was taken to hospital with blood streaming down his face.
The opposition members have now demanded an investigation be launched into why the parliamentary session descended into a violent fight.
Ukraine is divided into a Russian-speaking east and south, and the Ukrainian-speaking West.
It is not the first time a fight breaks out between members of Ukraine's parliament. In December 2010, at least six MPs went to hospital after a violent brawl erupted between members of Yanukovytch's party and the opposition.