Since Poland joined the EU in 2004, millions of Polish immigrants have made their homes in cities and towns across Europe.
While the majority have embraced the multicultural mix of the European cities where they have made their home, small but dedicated cells of Polish immigrants radicalised by far-right and extreme right parties have instead pledged to destroy it.
From Sweden to the UK, these groups are stepping up their activity, forming ties with other extremist groups and plotting racist attacks in response to the European refugee crisis.
Below, IBTimes UK profiles some of the key groups.
National-Radical Camp (Polish: Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny, ONR)
Named after the radical anti-Semitic movement banned in Poland in the 1930s, the ONR is among the most active far right Polish groups.
Formed as a loose coalition of skinhead groups in the early 2000s, the ONR built support throughout Poland, holding fascist-style marches in cities across the country and allying itself with fellow skinhead group the All-Polish Youth (Młodzież Wszechpolska, MW).
In recent years the group's 11 November Independence Day march in Warsaw has attracted tens of thousands, after the ONR built ties with other European far right groups, including the French Front National and the Hungarian Jobbik party as well as Polish football hooligan groups.
Among the groups with whom they have formed ties are the Nordisk Ungdom. In February, 14 far right activists were arrested in Sweden for plotting violent attacks on refugees.
National Rebirth of Poland (Polish: Narodowe Odrodzenie Polsk, NOP)
With roots in the early 1980s, the ONR is one of the longest standing Polish fascist groups.
Unlike the ONR, the NOP is a registered political party, which won 0.6 per cent of the vote in the 2005 national elections.
The party became one of the first in Poland to establish an internet presence, with Facebook groups and messaging groups allowing supporters in Poland and abroad to communicate. It has formed extensive ties with foreign fascist groups, and is a member of international fascist organisation the European National Front. The NOP promulgates anti-Semitic and fascist ideas through its publishing and music recording wings.
In a recent report, London-based anti-racism organisation Hope not Hate called the NOP "one of the most active far right groups in the United Kingdom," with estimates placing membership of the UK wing of the group at about 100.
The groups is believed to have played a key role in reviving UK far right networks, and in 2015 members attacked a free music festival in Tottenham, stabbing an anti-racism activist. Members of the group have also taken part in several far right rallies, including recent demonstrations in Newcastle and Manchester.
National Movement (Polish: Ruch Narodowy, RN)
Formed following the 2012 Polish Independence march, the RN is an alliance of right wing and far right Polish political groups, which was formed by fascists seeking to distance themselves from the toxic ONR and NOP.
In 2015, former nightclub bouncer Marian Kowalski stood as the party's presidential candidate, coming 9th of 11 candidates. As the party seeks to build ties with Poles abroad, Kowalski has spoken at events in Dublin, Ireland, and is scheduled to speak in London in April.