China said that the US government's recently passed spending bill contains clauses that "discriminate against Chinese companies, violate the principles of fair trade and send the wrong signal."
In a statement posted on the Ministry of Commerce's official website, China expressed its dissatisfaction and strong opposition to the $1.1bn (£700bn, €885bn) budget that averted a shutdown until September 2015 by giving additional finances for the functioning of the government.
China complains that the bill passed by the US House of Representatives on 11 December has clauses that limit or ban the use of funds for certain procurement and cooperation activities involving the Chinese government or Chinese companies.
For example, it bars using funds to procure Chinese processed poultry products for school lunches, and restricts purchase of IT systems produced in China.
"These provisions not only affect the normal business cooperation between enterprises, but also harm the interests of the US itself," Ministry of Commerce spokesman Sun Jiwen said.
"China urges US to take effective measures to correct the erroneous practice and create a favourable environment for the healthy development of Sino-US economic and trade relations."
The US House earlier passed a $1.1tn budget with 219 representatives voting in favour and 206 voting against the spending bill. The country was due to shut down at midnight on 11 December.
Around 57 democrats voted for the bill after President Barack Obama urged the opposition to support the budget, while 67 Republicans rejected it. Republicans are the majority in both the House and Senate following the elections held in November.
While the budget will fund most of the government until September 2015, some departments will only receive short-term funding. The Department of Homeland Security will receive funds only until February, as the Republicans strongly oppose President Obama's immigration reforms.