The NHS needs an additional £9.5bn ($11.9bn) to secure its future, the British Medical Association (BMA) has said.
The figure has emerged after the respected doctors' union carried out an analysis of sustainability and transformation plans (STPs) across the NHS – plans that were introduced in 2015 to help the 44 health areas determine their needs to provide high levels of care.
The BMA sent Freedom of Information requests to all 44 STPs, receiving 37 responses, to attempt to add up how much money is needed to tackle challenges facing the health service.
Of the additional £9.5bn needed, the BMA estimates more than £2bn is for "significant" or "high-risk" maintenance needs.
Commenting on the findings, BMA chief Mark Porter said: "These figures are especially concerning given that everyone can see a huge crisis unfolding within our NHS, with record numbers of trusts and GP practices raising the alarm to say they already can't cope.
"The NHS is at breaking point and the STP process could have offered a chance to deal with some of the problems that the NHS is facing, like unnecessary competition, expensive fragmentation and buildings and equipment often unfit for purpose. But there is clearly nowhere near the funding required to carry out these plans.
"These plans are fast becoming completely unworkable and have instead revealed a health service that is unsustainable without urgent further investment, and with little capacity to 'transform' in any meaningful way other than by reducing the provision of services on a drastic scale."
STPs are aimed at estimating need over a five-year basis. According to the BMA, more than half of the areas said they needed £100m immediately to make changes.
Cambridgeshire and Peterborough, Cheshire and Merseyside, Greater Manchester, North Central London, North East London and West Yorkshire have said they have urgent capital needs of £500m or more.
In a separate analysis by the i newspaper, it is claimed that 19 hospitals are facing imminent closure due to a £22bn black hole in the health service.