Italy bore the brunt of new arrivals of refugees and migrants after the implementation in March of an agreement between the European Union and Turkey to curb the flow of migrants sailing to Greece. A record 5,000 migrants are believed to have drowned in the Mediterranean Sea this year, compared with 3,800 who perished at sea during all of 2015.

Marko Djurica
Refugees walk through a frozen field after crossing the border from Macedonia, near the village of Miratovac, Serbia, on 18 January 2016 Marko Djurica/ Reuters
Aegean Sea
A man stands next to the body of a child washed up on a beach in Canakkale's Bademli district, after at least 33 people drowned when their boat sank in the Aegean Sea while trying to cross from Turkey to Greece on 30 January 2016 Ozan Kose/AFP
Lebanon camp
A Syrian refugee from Aleppo holding her son's hand walks past an advertising banner used as a makeshift tent in a Syrian refugee camp in the town of Kab Elias in Lebanon's Bekaa Valley on 20 June 2016 Patrick Baz/AFP
Libyan coast
Housaida, a Syrian refugee, rests inside the Spanish rescue vessel Astral after being rescued by the Spanish NGO Proactiva off the Libyan coast in the Mediterranean Sea on 18 August 2016 Giorgos Moutafis/Reuters