Jerusalem braced for more violence, after at least one Palestinian was killed during a massive rally in the West Bank and the Palestinian Authority called for a "day of rage" over the bloodshed in Gaza.

Israel tightened security in the city, deploying thousands of police units amid fears violent protest could break out after noon prayers marking the last Friday of Ramadan.

Authorities banned all men under the age of 50 from Jerusalem's Temple Mount, where the flashpoint Al-Aqsa mosque is located, Police spokesman Micky Rosenfeld said.

Rosenfeld tweeted:

Last night, thousands of Palestinians took to the streets in the West Bank in protest against Israeli military operation in Gaza.

Protesters were particularity outraged at the deaths of 15 people who were killed in an Israeli strike on a school used as a UN shelter for civilians.

Demonstrators marched from Ramallah towards East Jerusalem, where they were met by Israeli security forces and clashes erupted. At least one Palestinian was killed and 200 wounded.

Rosenfeld said 40 "Arab suspects" were arrested over the disturbances that left 29 policemen with slight injuries.

More than 800 Palestinians have been killed since the launch of operation 'Protective Edge' in Gaza. Ashraf al-Kidra, a Palestinian health official said 115 were killed yesterday in what was one of the deadliest days of fighting.

In turn, Hamas has fired more than 2,000 rockets at Israel in the same period. Thirty-four Israelis, among them 32 soldiers, and a Thai worker have also been killed.