Iran xmas
An Iranian girl poses in front of a shop window decorated for Christmas in Tehran on December 22, 2015, as Christians prepare to mark their holy day which celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ. ATTA KENARE/AFP/Getty Images

As with every year around this time, stories have been coming thick and fast about those parts of the world less inclined to get into the Christmas spirit. This year it is the Sultan of Brunei and Somalia who are leading the anti-Xmas charge, with the former banning Santa hats and the latter outlawing the Christian festival altogether.

But animosity towards the festival is no new phenomenon. It was banned by the pilgrims when they first arrived in the New World and by the puritans under Oliver Cromwell in the UK. A number of socialist countries banned Christmas – some still do – long before the Muslim states that make headlines for their anti-Yule crackdowns in 2015.

And while there are still a number of countries where Christians are forbidden from celebrating the day associated with the birth of Jesus, recent years have seen a number where restrictions have been lifted, including China, Cuba and Albania, while in Iraq and Pakistan the festival is being marked in both public and private despite violent radical insurgencies and other challenges.

Below, IBTimes UK looks at the history of banning Christmas.

Oliver Cromwell (1599 - 1658), Lord Protector of England, circa 1640. Original Artwork: From a drawing attributed to Samuel Cooper. Hulton Archive/Getty Images

1. England

Oliver Cromwell overthrew the monarchy and oversaw the execution of King Charles I during the English Civil War, but for many the fiery Puritan leader is better known for banning mince pies.

Christmas and the celebration of saints' days was discouraged – if not prohibited – in England between 1647 and 1660 as the country was ruled by a puritanical movement that considered the feast day 'giving liberty to carnal and sensual delights'.

They mandated that shops had to remain open and cracked down on celebrations, leading to violent clashes on the streets of London and other cities. Life returned to normal after Cromwell's death in 1658 and the Restoration two years later.

Brunei royal wedding
The Sultan of Brunei, Hassanal Bolkiah, prays during the wedding banquet at the Nurul Iman Palace in Bandar Seri Begawan Olivia Harris/Reuters

2. Brunei

Brunei banned public celebrations of Christmas and imposed fines and jail terms for those caught celebrating the festival last year, an edict that was reiterated this week by religious leaders writing in local newspaper, the Brunei Times. "These enforcement measures are ... intended to control the act of celebrating Christmas excessively and openly, which could damage the aqidah [beliefs] of the Muslim community," they said.

It specifically banned the wearing of Christmas costumes such as Santa hats, the lighting of candles, the signing of religious songs and putting up decorations such as Christmas trees. The Sultan of Brunei, a billionaire who owns hotels across the world, introduced a strict interpretation of Sharia law on the territory last year.

Vladimir Putin & Emomalii Rahmon
Tajikistan President Emomalii Rahmon is a close ally of Russia Reuters

3. Tajikistan

The reclusive former Soviet republic country's education ministry issued a decree in December outlawing Christmas trees, the exchange of presents, fireworks and festive meals.

Sky News reported that while the restrictions in 2015 are the strongest yet, anti-Christmas regulations have been getting increasingly restrictive over the last few years in the Muslim-majority country.

In 2014, the Tajik government banned Father Christmas and three years earlier a man dressed as Santa was stabbed to death in the capital on New Year's Eve. Tajikistan also bans Halloween and in 2013 and 2014 police rounded up revellers dressed as zombies and vampires.

Salman bin Abdulaziz al Saud
Salman bin Abdulaziz al Saud, king of Saudi Arabia Reuters

4. Saudi Arabia

Little surprise that Saudi Arabia, a theocracy governed by the strict Wahhabi doctrine of Islam, is not a big fan of Christmas.

In the past, expatriates had quietly celebrated in the comfort of their own homes (and will likely continue to) but rumours of illicit Christmas parties prompted state media in January to reiterate that celebrating the festival was not allowed in the kingdom. It went further by forbidding Muslims from greeting non-Muslims at Christmas, with a Saudi scholar saying: "If they celebrate the birth of God's son and you greet them... it means you endorse their faith."

This week it emerged that some expatriates in Saudi Arabia were going further, tweeting pictures of their Christmas trees and children dressed for the occasion.

North Korea Kim Jong-un punishment
North Korean leader Kim Jong-un KCNA via Reuters

5. North Korea

Back in 2013 North and South Korea almost went to war after the latter erected a giant Christmas tree at the border of the two countries.

North Korean state media said that the huge Christmas tree – which was lit up in a town close to the border and clearly visible from the North – was an act of psychological warfare.

North Korea does not officially ban Christianity but is ranked among the most hostile countries in the world towards Christians.

To complicate matters, December 24<sup>th – Christmas Eve – is celebrated in North Korea as the birthday of the Sacred Mother of the Revolution, Kim Jong Il's mum.

Ation Gjoni, 22, holds a wooden cross after retrieving it from the Adriatic Sea in Durres, some 40 km from Albania's capital Tirana Gent Shkullaku/AFP

6. Albania

Albania not only banned Christmas but religion as a whole in 1967, making the country the first and only constitutionally atheist state. The ban on any and all religious worship was only lifted after the fall of the Communist regime in 1990, when both Christians and Muslims were able to practice for the first time.

During the Communist years many priests and religious leaders were rounded up and jailed, but the pious celebrated Christmas and Easter nonetheless in private. They would have cake or chicken at meal times as a way of marking the days

PLYMOUTH, MA - NOVEMBER 17: People visit the 1627 Pilgrim Village at 'Plimoth Plantation' where role-players portray Pilgrims seven years after the arrival of the Mayflower November 17, 2005 in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Joe Raedle/Getty Images

7. USA

Puritans, up to their usual tricks, attempted to ban Christmas when they arrived in the New World in 1620. They branded the festival 'Foolstide' and decreed that the only religious day that should be celebrated was the Sabbath.

The Puritans managed to keep the ban going until the middle of the 18<sup>th century, at one point even arresting the Sir Edmund Andros, the Governor of Massachusetts, when he tried to sponsor a Christmas service.

Pope Francis Fidel Castro
Pope Francis meets with Fidel Castro Reuters

8. Cuba

Fidel Castro announced the Cuban government as atheist as soon as it took power in 1959 but it wasn't until 1969 that the Communist leader actually banned Christmas, as he wanted the population to stop partying and start working on the sugar harvest.

It was Pope John Paul II who eventually persuaded the ageing Cuban leader to lift his ban during a visit in 1998, when Castro agreed to make the day a national holiday.

Somalia corruption
Mogadishu has announced that both New Year's Eve and Christmas is banned. Getty

9. Somalia

Somalia banned Christmas in 2013 when a directive from the Ministry of Justice and Religious Affairs stated that no Christian festivals could be held in Somalia. Sheikh Ali Dhere, the country's director of religious matters, called a press conference a week before Christmas to make the announcement.

"We alert fellow Muslims in Somalia that some festivities to mark Christian days will take place around the world in this week. It is prohibited to celebrate those days in this country," he said.

It was the first time that the Somali government had banned Christmas since the country's government collapsed in 1991. In 2015, the government in Mogadishu went further, banning New Year's Eve celebrations and ordering the police and army to disperse any celebrations it found.

Christmas 2012-04

10. China

Christmas and Christianity as a whole were banned in China after 1949 but you would not know that if you were to visit during the festive season today. China goes mad for Christmas, and it is not just Chinese Christians that get in on the act – while Christmas is not a national holiday it is a widely celebrated festival day, akin to New Year, with fireworks and fancy dress in abundance.

While Santa Claus costumes and hats are a common sight on the streets of Shanghai or Beijing during Christmas, other costumes are less traditional – devil horns, for example, are sold widely to mark the day. Couples also like to treat Christmas as akin to Valentine's Day, exchanging gifts and going out for romantic meals.

Local media reported in 2012 that, like in the West, the Chinese use Christmas an opportunity to hit the shops, with Christmas Eve the biggest shopping night of the year for some retailers.