Neither championship leader Vettel nor second place Hamilton managed a podium finish with Daniel Ricciardo clinching his first win of the season ahead of Valtteri Bottas and 18-year-old Lance Stroll in second and third respectively.
But it was the chaotic incident involving the two that will dominate the aftermath of the race after the Ferrari driver ran into the back of leader Hamilton as they prepared for a restart after the second Safety Car of the afternoon.
Vettel accelerated into his rival as he came out of Turn 15, damaging his front wing in the process. Frustrated, the German then berated the Mercedes driver before pulling up alongside him and appearing to intentionally ram into him from the right hand side.
"He brake tested me," shouted Vettel over the team radio. "What the f**k is going on?"
That incident saw Vettel hit with a 10-second stop and go penalty for dangerous driving, although it didn't prevent him from finishing in fourth place ahead of Hamilton to maintain a 14-point lead in the Drivers' Championship.
Hamilton was initially reluctant to discuss the incident post-race but felt his rival should have been given a tougher sanction.
"You saw what happened, I don't really care about it," Hamilton told Sky Sports. "I don't know what to say, there is nothing I can say that is going to... it done and dusted, let's move on."
When asked specifically about the penalty Vettel received, he added: "I think it's not driving conduct. Dangerous driving and you get a 10 second penalty for that kind of thing, I think that's just... I don't need to say anymore."
Vettel was in no mood to take the blame, however.
"He break checked me so what do you expect? I'm sure he didn't do it on purpose but it was not the right move. If I am struggling, people in the back are going to too. I don't think it was necessary, I had a little damage, and he risked damage. He's done something similar a few years ago in China so... It's just not the way to do it I think."
Speaking shortly after to Channel 4, Hamilton took aim at his rival again, this time with a little more to say for himself. "I controlled the pace, like all the other restarts I slowed down in the same spot. He's obviously sleeping and drove in the back of me, that for me wasn't an issue.
"Driving alongside and deliberately driving into a driver and getting away scot free pretty much, he still came away fourth, I think that's a disgrace, he disgraced himself today to be honest."