As Newport prepares to welcome Nato delegates from across the globe, IBTimes UK has prepared a local's guide to South Wales.
How do you say hello and goodbye in Welsh? Luckily, 'helo' is the same as in English - minus one L. People also greet one another with 'shwmae' or 'sut mae', meaning how are you, a response to which could be 'da iawn diolch' – very good thank you. Good morning is 'bore da', good afternoon is 'prynhawn da' and good night is 'nos da'. Goodbye is 'hwyl', although an informal and commonly used term is 'tara' (pronounced ta-ra).
What are all the words underneath signs in Wales? They are translations of English.
Why does Wales have its own language though? The Welsh language – or Cymraeg – is the oldest living language in the UK and is one of the oldest in Europe, having been spoken for far longer than English. It emerged in the 6<sup>th century but early forms are thought to be as much as 4,000 years old.
Why do I have to pay for plastic bags? The Welsh government introduced a carrier bag charge in October 2011 that means shopping bags will cost you 5p. Similar legislation is expected to be introduced to England in the near future.
Why isn't the Welsh dragon on the Union Jack flag? Good question. The Union Jack was created in 1606 – Wales had been united with England since the 13<sup>th century so, as a result, was considered a principality rather than a Kingdom and was not included. Ireland and Scotland were still separate states, so were included.
What's for breakfast? While you can have cereal, toast and all the other normal breakfast foods available in the UK, more adventurous types should try cockles and Welsh laverbread – seaweed that is washed, boiled, pureed or minced then fried.
And lunch/dinner? Welsh rarebit – or special cheese on toast. For afternoon snacks, it's Welsh cakes. If you have a curry, you have half-and-half, which is half rice and half chips. Chips and curry sauce is good.
What's that place with the long name? Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch – it's in North Wales though, so about 165 miles from Newport and the Nato summit.
Other important words that mean different things in Wales:
Butt – friend
Drive – the name of your taxi or bus driver (make sure to always thank them)
Twp (tup) – stupid
Yur – here, ear or hear
Pop – fizzy drink
Where to is that/where to are you? – Where is that/where are you?
Tidy – really good
Buzzing – horrible
Lush – the best
Important phrases for Nato delegates
I won't lie to you ...
I've got to be honest with you ...
Stop your chopsing/stop being chopsy
I'm not being funny but ...
I'm only saying ...
And if you're running late to a meeting – "in a minute"