The Austrian presidential election takes place on 4 December, pitting Green candidate Alexander Van der Bellen and Norbert Hofer of the far-right Freedom Party of Austria, against one another.

Some believe that this election represents the next test for the rise of populism across Europe and the West, following the Brexit vote and the election of Donald Trump in the US.

Speaking to IBTimes UK, Professor Matthew Goodwin, a senior fellow at Chatham House and an expert on European populism, said, "I think the Austrian presidential election is absolutely fascinating because in a way it represents so much of what we're learning about populism in Europe.

"Hofer's placement as a presidential candidate for the Freedom Party in the final round verses a Green candidate in the final round really is a nice, albeit some might say worrying, example of just how polarised our politics is quickly becoming," he added.

The Freedom Party of Austria was founded by Nazi sympathisers in the 1950s, and has caused controversy due to their anti-immigration policies and calls for tighter border controls.

They have also stated their opposition to the "Islamisation of Europe."

Hofer lost out to Van der Bellen in the first presidential elections in May.

However, that result was nullified after an appeal from the Freedom Party amid accusations of irregularity in the counting across the country.