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Paris climate change talks begin on 30 November Reuters

World leaders have gathered in Paris for the COP21 climate change talks. The conference will run between 30 November and 11 December and by the end, it is hoped nations will have come to an agreement to limit emissions in order to prevent global warming surpassing 2C above pre-industrial levels.

On the first day, the Leaders Event will see heads of state and government arrive, meet and attend a lunch put on by French president Francis Hollande. In the afternoon participating nations will be invited to make opening statements, with speeches starting at midday.

IBTimes UK followed the first day as each nation laid out their plans and visions for COP21.

The world leaders have finished speaking. Now countries will start their negotiations in the hope of making a deal in the next 11 days.

Here's the announcement on the International Solar Alliance.

India and France have launched an International Solar Alliance to boost solar energy in developing countries.

The initiative was launched at the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris on 30 November by Indian Prime Minister Narendera Modi and French President Francois Hollande.

The alliance includes around 120 countries that support the "Declaration on the occasion to launch the international solar alliance of countries dedicated to the promotion of solar energy".

Iran vice-president Masoumeh Ebtekar, first pointed to the carbon footprint of conflict, war and terrorism. "Those perpetuating conflict are part of the global warming processes," she said, adding the root causes of terrorism need to be addressed.

Ebtekar also said Iran is looking to implement a robust low carbon and green economy, but said agreements must be balanced – noting the common but differentiated responsibilities. She said an agreement must be inclusive for all, with "no party left behind".

Miguel Díaz-Canel Bermúdez, First Vice-President of the Council of State and Ministers of Cuba, pointed to the Rio Earth Summit 23 years ago, when Fidel Castro warned how an "important biological species" was at risk of becoming extinct because of mankind. He said Castro said there was only one real solution back then – "a change in patterns of production and consumption".

"Humanity has placed its hopes in the results of this conference," he said, adding it was almost too late 23 years ago. "Today it is immoral to postpone international action," he said. "We the developing countries will do what we should do."

WWF-UK's Chief Executive, David Nussbaum, has reacted to Prince Charles' opening statement at COP21: "HRH The Prince of Wales' spoke from the heart and set exactly the right tone for the start of the Paris climate talks. As he says, we have the knowledge, the tools and the money to put us on the right low-carbon path for 2030.

"I hope the negotiators here in Paris will follow his plea and don't lose sight of international necessities over national interests. The climate talks need to bring us a step closer to a low-carbon future for all."

Greenpeace has commented on David Cameron's COP21 speech. Greenpeace UK executive director John Sauven said: "David Cameron has made a passionate appeal to fellow world leaders for a robust climate deal. The prime minister must now persuade his Chancellor to support it with real action back home.

"The UK's pioneering climate targets and the recent coal phase-out plan show that where Britain leads other countries follow. But we need to see the same UK leadership in the race to develop and invest in renewable technologies. This is what Britain's leading businesses, scientists, and the government's own advisers are urging Cameron to do - he should listen."

Mahamat Kamoun, Prime Minister of Central African Republic, said he wants to emerge from COP21 with positive results. If it fails, he said, we will all be responsible.

He pointed to an acute lack of food resources and said CAR is committed to sustainable development. "It is really obvious disaster is on our doorstep. We need bold and ambitious responses," he said.

Kamoun said CAR is committed to reduce emissions by at least 5% by 2030 and 25% by 2050, as well as increasing its potential for carbon capture. However, he said significant financial and technical assistance must be provided.

World Health Organization: A strong climate change agreement is a strong health agreement. WHO releases its key messages for COP21, saying climate change is expected to cause 250,000 additional deaths every year by the 2030s.

"Poorer populations and children are disproportionately at risk, with different impacts on women and men," it said. "Overall, climate change is expected to widen existing health inequalities, both between and within populations."

Read more here

Modi said: "Over the next few days we will decide the fate of this planet. We do so when the consequences of the industrial age powered by fossil fuel are evident, especially on the lives of the poor. The prosperous still have a strong carbon footprint and the world's billions are seeking space to grow. So the choices are not easy. But we have advances in technology, we need now a genuine global partnership."

He said India is guided by an "ancient belief" that the people and planet are inseparable – that human wellbeing and nature are indivisible. For this reason, Modi said, India has set a target of reducing emissions by between 33-35% of 2005 levels by 2030. He also said they would produce 40% of its power from non-fossil fuels by this time.

Modi added, however, that the "common but differentiated responsibility must remain the bedrock" of the talks – in that developed countries that produced most emissions should be most responsible. He said energy is a basic human need, so emission technology is needed. However, he also said India still requires "conventional energy", so it is important an end to its use is not imposed upon his nation.

"The presence of 196 countries tells us we have a chance to unite in a common purpose," he said. "I'm confident we will."

Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India, is now talking at COP21 watch here

Obama and Modi speaking on the sidelines of COP21

Here's Obama's speech from earlier today

Sweden's Stefan Löfven said his country will be one of the first fossil free nations in the world. "[We need to] accelerate a new green industrial revolution that will be ever as transformative as the one 250 years ago. But this time change must be global. It must build on renewables and it must be fair," he said. "We have a duty to those countries that did not cause emissions but are most vulnerable to their effects."

He said because of this duty Sweden will be making substantial contributions to the adaptation fund and least developed countries fund. He said Paris should not be seen as the end but as a beginning and one that we should use to "push us forward onto the right path".

Cameron asking what our grandchildren would ask if we fail to make a deal at Paris COP21. He asked how we would respond if they were to ask what was so difficult about coming to an agreement. "What was so difficult when the earth was in peril? When the sea levels were rising, when crops were failing?" he asked.

He pointed to several excuses, like binding agreements and legislation, but concluded: "Instead of making excuses, we should be taking action on climate change today. It's not difficult, it's doable. Therefore we should come together and do it."

David Cameron: "We're at the stage of this conference after a series of speeches where we can safely say every point that needs to be made has been made – but not by every speaker.

"We need a deal that keeps 2C alive. A deal with a binding legal mechanism. A deal with a five year review, a deal for the poorest and most vulnerable. A deal that we can measure and verify and one that transfers technology from the richest to the poorest countries. We all know that."

David Cameron about to speak

Here's the family picture of the newly launched International Solar Alliance. Read more about the alliance here.

Greece's Prime Minister Alexi Tsipras said despite the social and economic crisis, it is working to limit climate change.

"Climate change constitutes a global threat to security. Its effects can exacerbate resource competition. Intense natural disasters and extreme poverty will affect the most vulnerable. Greece is currently experiencing an unprecedented refugee crisis and human despair and will give political priority to prevent climate change displacement risk.

"I hope all of us in this room will not prove ourselves short of the circumstances, I hope we will not allow future generations to blame us for not seizing the opportunity. We are here to take historical steps and we should take them here and now."

Juncker said: "We do know today the risks we face tomorrow. It's a question of political will and action and that is what is at stake at this conference."

He said it is possible to bequeath a better planet to future generations: "This isn't a dream, it's a reality that is within our reach," he said, but warned the "clock is ticking increasingly quickly". Juncker said we currently need four planets to fulfil our energy requirements: "We only have one," he added.

"The world's resources may be finite, but human creativity is inexhaustible. This transition will not be easy, we will need to help one another.

"We must do more in the years ahead. And others should follow our example. A new global dynamic has appeared, however this is not yet enough to limit global warming to within 2C. Promises will no longer be enough."

Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission of the European Union, is now speaking.

On the first day of COP21, pollution reached its worst level of the year in Beijing, with authorities maintaining a rare "orange" alert for a second consecutive day. Images show the city blanketed in a cloud of thick grey smog - see our photo gallery here.

Beijing pollution
The skyline of Beijing's Central Business District is seen on 23/27 October and 27/28 November, 2015 Kevin Frayer/Getty)

Erna Solberg, Prime Minister of Norway, said openness is essential to talks. She said world leaders need to agree how to take stock globally, to assess where we are and guide future emissions.

"Norway will do its share. We will reduce emissions by 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels," she said.

"Norway will work constructively with all parties to make Paris a success. This is no time for tactics or game playing ... we must live up to the world's expectations. We must make COP21 the turning point."

Meanwhile Francis Hollande and India's Narendra Modi have launched a new international solar alliance at COP21. "The sun is the source of all energy. The world must turn to solar, the power of our future," Modi said.

Trudeau said climate finance is critical to a deal: "Initiatives will help developing countries reduce emissions and adapt to climate change. The Paris agreement should reflect a new reality – that the world has changed for the better.

"We have an opportunity to make history. Canada is back my good friends. We're here to help, to build an agreement that will do our children and grandchildren proud."

Canada's Justin Trudeau:

"We will help developing world tackle the challenges of climate change. The world's most vulnerable have done little to contribute, yet face biggest consequences."

Trudeau said development should be based on clean energy technologies and he pointed to Canadian cities that are currently leading the way in this effort.

"We view climate change not just as challenge it is, but also historic opportunity to build a sustainable economy," he said. "We will not sacrifice growth, we will create growth."

Canada has announced $30 million to finance climate projects in the world's least developed countries. Read more here.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau was due to have already made his speech at the Leaders Event but he is now expected to talk last.

Fuad Masum, President of Iraq, spoke about the threat from terrorism as well as climate change. He said Iraq supports international efforts to limit global warming to 2C, but said it is "very important developed countries remember their historic responsibilities to the most vulnerable countries. These countries must provide developing countries all necessary assistance".

There will be a lot of talk about the common but differentiated responsibility principle over the next 11 days as it is one of the cornerstones of sustainable development.

Common but differentiated responsibility comes from the idea that all states have a responsibility to protect the environment and climate system. However, it also recognises that different states should have different responsibilities – it takes into account historical differences in the contributions of states to global environmental problems and their economic and technical capacity to tackle them.

For example, developing countries historically produced less emissions and less money to finance change, so have less responsibility, while developed countries (which benefited economically from exploitation of fossil fuels) that produced more emissions and have more money to spend on climate mitigation should bear the brunt of the responsibility.

Read more about climate change semantics here

Here's Prince Charles' full speech from this morning at COP21

On an increasingly crowded planet, humanity faces many threats – but none is greater than climate change. It magnifies every hazard and tension of our existence. It threatens our ability to feed ourselves; to remain healthy and safe from extreme weather; to manage the natural resources that support our economies, and to avert the humanitarian disaster of mass migration and increasing conflict.

To mark COP21, astronaut Scott Kelly tweeted a picture from the International Space Station

John Key, Prime Minister of New Zealand, said it would boost funding into research to reduce emissions. He said New Zealand has one of highest rates of use of renewables and pledged to have 90% renewable energy by 2025.

Muhammadu Buhari, President of Nigeria, said they are already feeling the effects of climate change, with extreme weather events being more frequent. The effects of these have destroyed social structures and economies, he said.

He said with terrorism rife, inaction will result in more refugees making their way to Europe. He pointed to the Lake Chad Basin Commission as essential to the country's future: "The world is leaving behind millions of people who depend on lakes for their survival."

Buhari said Nigeria will make an unconditional commitment to 20% reductions, but with a 45% conditional commitment based on aid from other nations.

Rajoy said there needs to be a "global and ambitious response" to climate change and that to achieve this goal it is "not possible to be unilateral". He pledged to reduce Spain's emissions by 40% by 2030 and said the country is "committed to climate financing".

"We must achieve an agreement that is global, ambitious and legally binding, which commits all of us on the basis of our capabilities and national circumstances ... I trust in a successful outcome from these negotiations. You can count on the full cooperation from Spain."

Spain's Mariano Rajoy Brey is up next. Spain was one of only four countries where polling showed support for their governments taking a leading role in climate change. The poll was provided to the BBC by research group GlobeScan. Other countries in favour of action were Canada, France and the UK.

Businesses are urging governments to take action on climate change. Read more here.

Erdoğan said there needs to be a "strong regime" to keep global warming below 2C. He focused on the responsibility of developed countries to support others and said the principle of shared but differentiated responsibilities is key.

He promised a 21% reduction in emissions until 2030.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, President of Turkey, reiterates condolences to those killed in the recent Paris attacks.

Waqa: "We are yet to choose safety over suffering ... It will not be easy and it will not be cheap. The scale of transformation will be unprecedented, requiring all of us to re-examine failed ideologies. We have grown complacent ... Those with resources must step up."

Speeches have now restarted. Baron D. Waqa, President of Nauru, and Enrique Peña Nieto, President of Mexico, currently speaking.

COP15 climate talks famously failed in Copenhagen in 2009. Leading climate scientist Michael Mann talked about the difference between then and now - and why Paris is much more promising. Read more here.

COP21 speeches are due to restart at around 2.45 GMT. Commenting on the morning session, Harjeet Singh, ActionAid's Climate Policy Manager, said what has been proposed so far is not enough.

"World leaders sent a clear message today that climate change is no longer a distant reality," he said. "The damage to rising seas and increasing typhoons is the present and it's tearing apart the lives of some of the poorest and most vulnerable people on the planet. Obama and many other leaders should be commended for shining a spotlight on the plight of the world's poorest.

"Leaders have now thrown themselves a gauntlet to address the current and devastating impact of climate change over the next two weeks. The same rich countries speaking up for the world's most vulnerable now urgently need to match their words with action – and what they have put on the table so far is not anywhere near their fair share of climate action. Countries must agree to keep warming to below 1.5 degrees, provide adequate money to help poor countries adapt, and include clear and unequivocal lines on tackling the current and future loss and damage in the agreement."

Read Ban Ki-moon's opening speech at COP21 here

More than 150 world leaders have come to Paris and are here together in one room, with one purpose. A political moment like this may not come again. We have never faced such a test. But neither have we encountered such great opportunity. You have the power to secure the well-being of this and succeeding generations.

Ban Ki-moon cop21

While we wait for talks to resume, here is a guide to the 2C target the world leaders are aiming for - What is the 2C limit and what happens if global warming exceeds it?

Translation of Putin's COP21 speech: "By 2030 we're planning to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 70% from 1990 levels."

The leaders are adjourning for lunch, running quite late - we're only halfway through speakers that should have spoken by now. Should be back on in an hour.

Putin talked a lot about the advances Russia has taken against climate change while doubling the country's GDP. He called climate change the "gravest challenge humanity is facing."

He backed the 2C target and spoke of Russia's part in the global cooperation and that Russia will help developing nations. He stated that Russia had proposed a UN scientific conference on new technologies.

He mentioned the important role of forests in tackling climate change - Russia's part of the Boreal Forest is one of the world's largest carbon sinks.

Angela Merkel just finished. She called for an agreement that had "nothing less than keeping within the global warming limit of 2C" but she said it will need "a profound transformation of the way we do business".

She said that developed countries have the most responsibility: "we have to be at the very vanguard of technological advances".

A relatively formal speech from Xi Jinping, stating issues that the agreement should tackle and what China has already been doing.

"The Paris conference is not the finish line but a new starting point," he said, saying that it should show the future of international 'win-win' co-operation.

Xi Jinping said that china would aim to peak CO<sub>2 emissions by 2030 and stressed the responsibility of developed countries towards developing ones.

President of China, Xi Jinping is up next. China is the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases.

Barack Obama saluted the people of Paris for insisting "this crucial conference" go on.

He mentioned affects of climate change being felt in Alaska and accepted America's responsibility for historic emissions. He also said that America is on track to hit their targets on carbon levels.

"One of the enemies we will be fighting at the conference is cynicism... our progress should give us hope during these two weeks."

"Our task in here in Paris is to turn these achievements into an enduring framework."

The King of Morocco has lost his voice so isn't delivering Morocco's address. Morocco is set to open one of the largest solar plants in the world, you can read more about that here.

Morocco will hold COP22 in Marrakesh next year.

Paraguayan President Horacio Cartes calls for heads of state to "wake up" to climate change while making a point of Paraguay's renewable sector.

Here's that family photo -

We'll be focusing on Conference Room Seine this afternoon, soon to start with a speech by Horacio Cartes, the President of Paraguay.

The family photo has been taken and delegates should be on the way to one of two rooms to make their short speeches. Barack Obama is third to speak in conference room Seine, with Xi Jinping two places after - America and China are the world's biggest emitters of greenhouse gases.

If you want to know a bit more about COP21, you can check out IBTimes UK's video explainer below:

Laurent Fabius takes the podium for the second time today. "In 11 short days we must reach a universal, ambitious climate agreement.... it must ensure that by 2100, greenhouse gas emissions do not cause a rise above 2C.

"As president of this COP21, I will be listening to all of you, I will be impartial and I will strive to find an ambitious compromise.

"The situation is urgent... if nothing is done the situation will be irreversible.... The lives of millions of our brothers and sisters depend on our decisions here."

Ban Ki Moon said: "This is a pivotal moment for your countries, your people and our common home, your planet. Let me be clear, the fate of the Paris agreement rests with you. The future of our planet is in your hands, we cannot afford indecision."

He also mentioned protest movements all over the world and called on world leaders to listen to those who took to the streets. "You have the moral and political responsibility for this world... history is calling, I urge you to answer with courage and vision."

UN Secretary General, Ban Ki Moon said: "We have never faced such a test, political momentum like this may not come again... you have the power to secure the well-being of this and succeeding generations. The time for brinkmanship is over."

"To resolve the climate crisis... good wishes will not be enough... we are on the brink of a breaking point, Paris must be the start of a change," Hollande said.

Addressing the delegates, he said: "The hope of all of humanity rests on your shoulders." Hollande said that the greatest danger was not aiming too high and missing, it was aiming too low and hitting.

Hollande called on developed countries to take the brunt of the responsibility and help developing countries to make the transition to reducing emissions. He said that the victims of phenomena caused by climate change numbered in the millions and the poorest countries were most vulnerable.

"I'm not choosing between the fight against terrorism and the fight against global warming... we must leave our children more than a planet free of terror."

Hollande said that it was in the name of climate justice that we must act.

French President, Francois Hollande, said: "This is a historic day. Never has a conference welcomed so many dignitaries coming from so many countries. Never have the stakes of an international meeting been so high, what is at stake is the future of the planet. Your presence has generated immense hope that we do not have the right to disappoint."

UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon asks the delegates to rise and observe a moment of silence for victims of terrorist attacks all over the world.

Approximately 150 heads of state and government are attending the COP21 leaders event. Because of the number of speakers, each leader should get around three minutes to speak.

The first session from 11am-12:15pm (GMT) will include addresses from US President Barack Obama, Chinese Premier Xi Jinping, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Russian President Vladimir Putin.

Fabius has adjourned the formal opening, giving delegates time to get to the other meeting rooms for the leaders' events starting at 10am GMT with addresses from Francois Hollande, Ban Ki Moon and Fabius, again. Then it is group photo time before the first session of statements from world leaders.

Charles, the Prince of Wales, a long-standing environmental activist, is addressing delegates. Rarely have so many people placed their trust in so few, he says.

"I urge you to think of your grandchildren, as I think of mine... Most of all, I urge you to consider the needs of the younger generation because none of us has the right to assume that for our today they must give up their tomorrow. The planet can survive the scorching of the earth and rising waters, the human race cannot."

Figueres calls these talks a turning point but says that the task is not done.

Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, starts of by expressing grief at the recent Paris attacks. "We stand with Paris," she says. "Paris must be where the world unites as one."

Laurent Fabius, President of COP21, calls the presidency an honour, saying it is no easy task.

French Foreign Minister, Laurent Fabius is formally elected president of COP21. Officials from last year get up and their seats are taken by the new officials as the formal handover of the COP presidency.

Vidal thanks reflects on the talks he chaired in Lima last year and thanks delegates for their work so far. 181 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) have been submitted before these talks started.

He also makes a little joke about pisco sours (the most popular cocktail in Peru), if you don't know the reference you can check out our feature about pisco in the UK here.

Manuel Pulgar Vidal, Peru's environment minister and chair of last year's conference in Lima, Peru, formally opens proceedings.

Welcome to the IBTimes UK live blog of the opening of COP21 where we'll be updating you on the latest news from the leaders' speeches.

If you're interested in watching live, you can do so on the UNFCCC website.

The leader's event will be kicking off with formal proceedings, the handover of the presidency and then welcoming addresses by French President, Francois Hollande; UN Secretary General, Ban Ki Moon, and French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius, before speeches from heads of state all through the day.