Ronaldo scored a sensational goal after coming off the bench to put his side 2-1 ahead at the Nou Camp, tearing off his shirt in celebration.
Three minutes later, the reigning Ballon d'Or was shown a second yellow after he was judged to have dived inside the penalty box while breaking through on goal. After the red card was flashed, Ronaldo pushed referee Ricardo de Burgos Bengoetxea after his protests were waved away.
He picks up a one-match ban for the two yellow cards that immediately rules him out of the second-leg clash against Barcelona at the Bernabeu on Wednesday, with a further four games added for the push, the Spanish Football Federation has confirmed.
The ban will only apply to domestic games, ruling him out of La Liga clashes against Deportivo La Coruna, Valencia, Levante and Real Sociedad but leaving him free to start Real Madrid's Champions League title defence.
Real went onto secure a 3-1 victory with Marco Asensio extending his side's lead following Ronaldo's departure.
Zinedine Zidane suggested in his post-match press conference his side would appeal the red card, describing the second yellow as "ludicrous." Television replays did seem to suggest there was contact from Barcelona defender Samuel Umtiti before Ronaldo broke into the penalty box.
"I am not going to get wrapped up in what the referee did because frankly we played a brilliant game. I'm annoyed that Cristiano Ronaldo was sent off, it might not have been a penalty, but still, giving him a card is ludicrous," the Real Madrid boss said.
"Let's see if we can make arrangements for him to be available on Wednesday."
Isco started ahead of Ronaldo in Sunday's match, thriving in a free role behind a front two of Gareth Bale and Karim Benzema. Zidane is likely to opt for the same formula on Wednesday, although 21-year-old Asensio will also be pushing for a start following his remarkable cameo.